1.The Writing Process  

 2.The First and Second Steps in Writing              

   3.The Third Step in Writing  

 4.The Fourth Step in Writing  

 5.Four Bases for Revising Writing   6.Paragraph Development

The Writing Process

4 steps:1 Discovering a point-often through prewriting.
             2. Developing solid supporting material and writing it out in a first draft.
             3.Organizing the supporting material and writing it out in a fist draft.
             4. Revising and then ending carefully to ensure an effective, error-free

Technique 1: Freewriting
When you do not know what to write about a subject or when you are blocked in writing. freewriting sometimes helps. In freewriting, you write on your topic for ten minutes. You do not worry about spelling or punctuating correctly, about erasing mistakes, about organizing material, or about finding exact words. You just write without stopping. If you get stuck for words, you write "I am looking for something to say" or repeat words until something comes. There is no need to feel inhibited, sine mistakes do not count and you do not have to hand in your paper.
   Freewriting is a way to break through mental blocks abut writing. Since you do not have to worry about mistakes, you can focus on discovering what you want to say about a subject. Your initial ideas and impressions will often become clear after you have gotten them down on paper, and they may lead to other impressions and ideas.

A Student Model: The job I remember most  is the worst job I ever had. I worked in an apple plant, I put in very long hours and would be totaly beat after ten hours of work. All the time lifting cartons of apple juice which would come racing down a metal track. The guy with me was a bit lazy at times, and I would be one man doing a two-man job. The cartons would go into a tracter trailer, we would have to throw down wooden skids to put the cartons on, then wed have to move the metal track as we filled up the truck. There is no other job I have had that even compares to this job, it was a lot worse than it seems. The bosses treated us like slaves and the company paid us like slaves. I would work all night from 7 p.m, and drive home in the morning at 5 a.m. and be bone tired. I remember my arms and shoders were so tired after the first night. I had trouble turning the steering wheel of my father's car.

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(this a student's writing in response to an assignment to write a paper on the best or worst job he ever had. Notice that there are problems with spelling, grammar, and punctuation in his freewriting. This student was not worried about such matters. At this stage, he just wanted to do some thinking on paper and get some material down on the page. He knew that this was a good first step, a good way of getting started, and that he would then be able to go on and shape that material.)

Technique 2: Questioning
In question, you generate ideas and details by asking as many questions as you can think of abut your subject. Such questions include Why? When? Where? Who ? How ? In What ways?

If you write about bad job that you had, here are question:

    Questions                               Answer
What did I hate about the job?        Very hard work; poor pay; mean bosses.
 How was the work hard?                Nonstop cartons of apple juice .   

 Why was pay poor?                    $3.65 an hour (minimum wage at the time)
                                      Only a quarter more for working the second  
                                      shift. Only good money was in overtime-where
                                      you got time-a -half. No double time.

 How were the bosses                  Yelled at some workers. Showed no appreciation,
                                      Created bad working conditions.

In what ways were working          Unheated truck in zero-degree weather. Floor
 conditions bad?                    of tractor trailer was cold steel.
                                    Breaks were limited-only two of them. Lonely job.

Technique 3: Making a list

 In making a list, also known as brainstorming. you create a list of ideas and details that relate to your subject.

In what ways were working          Unheated truck in zero-degree weather. Floor
 conditions bad?                    of tractor trailer was cold steel.
                                    Breaks were limited-only two of them. Lonely job.

  A scratch outline can be the single most helpful technique for writing a good paper. A scratch outline often follows freewriting, questioning, making a list, but it may also gradually emerge in the midst of these strategies. in fact, trying to make a scratch outline is a good way to see if you need to do more prewriting. If you cannot come up with a solid outline, then you know you need to do more prewriting to clarify your main point and its several kinds of support.
  In a scratch outline, you think carefully about the point you are making, the supporting items for that point, and the order in which you will arrange those items.

Under the list, the student was now able to prepare his scratch outline:

  The apple plant was my worst job.

  1. Hard work. 2 Poor pay 3. Poor working conditions.

4:Preparing a Scratch Outline